Essay on Respiration

Essay on Respiration:

Respiration is an integral part of living. Consisting of chemical, biological, and physical aspects, it occurs in organisms in order to generate energy. There exist two major types of respiration, aerobic and anaerobic types.

Aerobic respiration requires oxygen to obtain energy. Being also called a cellular respiration, this process takes place in aerobic organisms that have an oxygen-based metabolism. During aerobic respiration, oxygen is used to oxidize molecules of various substances in order to produce necessary energy. The end product of this process is ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate), the form of energy obtained due to the presence of oxygen in the cell. Organizms that carry out this form of respiration are Obligate Aerobes, Facultative Aerobes, and Microaerophiles, that differ by the degree of employing oxygen in respiration process.

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Anaerobic respiration, on the other hand, excludes oxygen from the process of oxidizing molecules. That is why it is sometimes called a respiration without air. The goal of this process is also producing energy. The major chemical process involved in anaerobic process is fermentation. The organisms that use this type of respiration, mostly microorganisms living in deoxygenated environment, are called anaerobes. However, there exist a special type of anaerobic organisms, Aerotolerant and Facultative Anaerobes that may also use aerobic respiration in the oxygen-rich surroundings.

This information may be applied in my professional life. For instance, I know now that aerobic respiration is more efficient than anaerobic, as it produces 30 molecules of ATP from 1 molecule of glucose, comparing to 2 ATP molecules from glucose molecule during anaerobic respiration.

Genetic variation
The diversity among eukaryotic offspring is conditioned by three major mechanisms that form genetic variation.

Independent Assortment. During metaphase I of meiosis process homologous pairs have equal chances of going to either pole, as orientation of each pair to the two poles is random. Thus, during meiosis process chromosomes are put into gametes according to independent assortment with a concrete number of possible combinations – 2x, where x is haploid number.

Crossing Over. During prophase I, between fragments of non-sister chromatid strands crossing over usually occurs. In human cells this event occurs around two times per chromosome.

Random Fertilization. As long as each sex produces a great number of diverse gametes, they coalesce randomly. Hence the randomness conditions the enormous total number of genetically different diploid cells.

Understanding of this concept could be very helpful to me in my professional life. For example, I know now that even twins have diverse genetic sets, and provide them with adequate medical help if needed.

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