Vitamin A is a group substances with a similar chemical structure, which includes retinoids: retinol (vitamin A1, akseroftol), degidroretinol (vitamin A2), retinal (retinitis, the aldehyde of vitamin A1), retinoic acid, and several pro-vitamins-carotenoids, among which the most important is β- carotene. Retinoids are found in animal products, and carotenoids in plants. All these substances are readily soluble in nonpolar organic solvents (such as oils) and poorly soluble in water. They are deposited in the liver and can be accumulated in the tissues. Its overdose is toxic.
Vitamin was discovered in 1913. In 1931, it was described by its structure, and it was crystallized in 1937.
In humans and animals, Vitamin A has many biologically important functions. Retinal is a component of rhodopsin, the main visual pigment, which as well, in the form of retinoic acid, stimulates the growth and development. Retinol is a structural component of cell membranes and provides antioxidant protection. Read the rest of this entry »
Kurt Vonnegut (November 11, 1922 – April 11, 2007) was American writer, satirist, artist, called “a writer of New York State” in 2001-2003.
Kurt Vonnegut was born in Indianapolis. In 1941, he became a student at Cornell University in New York State. While studying chemistry at the university, he wrote for the newspaper «Cornell Daily Sun». After the Pearl Harbor, he volunteered to join American forces going to Europe.
In 1944, Vonnegut was taken captive and during his imprisonment witnessed the bombing of Dresden.
After war, Vonnegut entered the University of Chicago majoring in anthropology. Along with his studies in graduate school, he took a part-time job as a reporter in the local news bureau. In 1947, he tried to defend his thesis, but failed. After this failure, in 1947, Vonnegut moved to Schenectady, NY, where he worked in General Electric. At the same time he started to write. Read the rest of this entry »
Heavy metals is the group of chemical elements, which are characterised with the high atomic weight and density. There are more than forty explanations of the term ‘heavy metals’ and it is impossible to find the single right one. As a result the list of chemical elements will be different, because will be based on the explanation. If one focuses on the atomic weight which will be more than 50, the list of heavy metals will contain all the elements starting from Vanadium; but if one decides to use density as the main criteria which will be equal or higher than of Iron, the list of elements will include Lead, Mercury, Copper, Cadmium, Cobalt, but the less dense element Tin will not be included into the list.
There are also classifications based on the other numbers of density and atomic weight and there exceptions for the rare and noble metals. Read the rest of this entry »
Kidnapping is a wrongful intentional act aimed at secret or open, or by fraud, withdrawal of a person from his natural micro social environment and from his residence with subsequent retention elsewhere against his will.
The crime is mostly committed for mercenary motives and aims ransom from relatives or loved ones of the kidnapped person, as well as forcing these people to perform the required actions for the kidnappers.
According to legal experts, kidnapping is a socially dangerous deliberate action aimed at removing people from their permanent residence and forcibly holding him at the place unknown for relatives and law enforcement agencies. However, such place is believed by many experts not as a necessary feature of kidnapping. Read the rest of this entry »
The skeletal system is a set of bones, which makes up the passive part of the musculoskeletal system. It supports the soft tissues, muscles fulcrum (the lever system), and protects the internal organs. The skeletal system develops from the mesenchyme.
The human skeletal system consists of over two hundred bones, and almost all of them are connected in one system with the help of the joints, ligaments, and other tissues.
During the lifetime, the system is constantly undergoing change. During fetal development, the cartilaginous skeleton of the fetus is gradually replaced by bone. This process also continues for several years after birth. A newborn baby has the skeletal system of nearly 270 bones, which is much larger than that of an adult. This difference arose from the fact that children’s skeleton contains a large number of small bones that fuse together into large bone only to a certain age. These are, for example, the bones of the skull, pelvis, and spine. Sacral vertebrae, for example, are fused into a single bone (sacrum) only at the age of 18-25 years. As a result, there remain only 200-213 bones in the grown man’s body, depending on the characteristics of the organism. Read the rest of this entry »
Blue eyes technology is an alternative input interface technology, designed to replace standard input devices, such as a mouse, keyboard or touch pad. The new user interface involves eye-tracking using a high definition camera and infrared light.
Manu Kumar, researcher at Stanford and Terry Winograd, computer-science professor, initially developed this technology in order to aid disabled users to communicate with their computers, but at some point the technology has grown enough to be presented to nondisabled users. The developers said that they had to improve their product to a higher standard to be able to present the new interface for the wide public, as ablebodied users are more demanding and has not accepted previous eye-tracking interfaces developed for disabled people. Read the rest of this entry »
Baby dumping can take many forms, sometimes regulated, as is the case for anonymous delivery or safe-haven laws in some states in the United States, which allows the mother to give birth to a child in a hospital and legally, thereby reducing infant deaths. In this case, baby dumping out of this procedure is often penalized.
Some North African countries, including Morocco and Algeria, tolerate the practice of baby dumping, and established forms of anonymous accouchement, without them being formalized, in Morocco, such procedures implies the criminalization of the mother, similar to that of a prostitute. Read the rest of this entry »
Apriori algorithm is an algorithm for mining association rules.
In the area of data mining, the research of Association Rules is a popular study in depth with the aim of discovering relationships of interest to the statistician between two or more variables stored in very large databases. Piatetsky-Shapiro method presents association rules extremely strong discovered in databases using different measures of interest. Based on the concept of strong relationships, Rakesh Agrawal and his team present association rules whose purpose is to discover similarities between items in the data entered on a large scale in computer systems of sales points belonging to the supermarkets channels. For example, a rule found in the sales data in a supermarket could indicate a customer, purchasing onions and potatoes together, would be likely buying a hamburger. Such information can be used as basis for making marketing decisions, such as, for example, for promotions or well chosen placement of related products. Read the rest of this entry »
Gilgamesh’s story is one of the best sources of ancient literature that I have ever come across. The level of comic effects, sarcasm and legendary tales in which the story contains a perfect mixture of all makes the story more than epic. The fact that Gilgamesh was a self-obsessed king who lay will all the women on their wedding day was one of the most fascinating stories that I have ever read. In addition, the fact that this tale is from one of the most ancient civilizations, Mesopotamia, makes the story one invaluable asset to the world of literature, and the collection that I have been lucky enough to read through. As such, it is the oldest piece of literature I have ever read, since it is dated even much earlier than the Bible, with Gilgamesh’s tale of the storm being dated to have occurred at the same time or could be assumed to be the same flood as that of Noah. Gilgamesh’s personality changed from his egotistic womanizing habits to a more calm and resourceful king, due to the influence that his equally energetic beast-man, Enkidu had on him. Read the rest of this entry »
Normalization Process is a concept in psychology, used to describe how one returns to the normal state after being, for example, sick, depressive or, on the contrary, extra happy and festive. After an individual has undergone a deep shock, return a “normal” life happens gradually and has to go through different psychological phases of denial until the person finally is in a well-functioning restored life with the opportunity to look back at the tragic loss without being again gripped by anxiety or nightmares.
Criteria of the “normal” are individual for each person and can be considered as such that usually prevail in life of this particular person. A deviation from this normality may be such person activity that derives from usually repeated routine (every day work). The normalization process intensity has to be adequate to the intensity of event or trauma so that injured person can come back to his normal life. Thus, healing is what we are calling a normalization process after severe illness, we call sadness a process of normalization after the loss of a loved one, we call grief a mourning process. Read the rest of this entry »