Lean manufacturing is a management concept, which implies unswerving quest to eliminate all kinds of expenditure of resources not oriented on the production of value for the end customer. Lean manufacturing involves the business processes optimization and maximum customer orientation.
Lean manufacturing is an effective approach to the company management, which ensures long-term competitiveness without significant investment. It is a practice that aims developing the ability of the company to improve productivity systematically, reduce production costs, delivery time, and all others expenditure of resources. This ability considered to be achieved through the effective managing of production and by establishing close relationship with suppliers and customers when products are manufactured in strict accordance with the needs of consumers. Read the rest of this entry »
Many health officials have raised concerns about future environmental health issues. Globalization, technological advancements, and population increase have led to a number of environmental changes. These changes have various impacts on the health of human beings (Roberts, 2010).
For instance, the development of nanotechnology, despite having its advantages has a number of health risks. Nano-sized materials are used in various products like cosmetics, clothes, and even medical products. This technology is bound to become more advanced and be applied in many areas. Unfortunately, very few people understand the health risks that come with nanotechnology. According to Bernstein & Edwards (2008), the minority groups in the US will become the majority by the year 2042 due to globalization. This will become a challenge to food service employees who will have a problem understanding the food safety literature of different cultures. Health inspectors will also have a hard time communicating with food service operators who do not understand English. Globalization will also lead to the spread of infectious diseases such as AIDS and Ebola (Canton, 2006). Read the rest of this entry »
Vegetarianism is an ideology characterized, in the first place, by abstaining from eating flesh of any animal.
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term “vegetarian” comes from the word vegetable. The dictionary says that the word became popular after creating the Vegetarian Society in 1847, but it shows still earlier occurrences. Vegetarian Society, which credits itself with creating the term “vegetarian,” says it was formed from the Latin word vegetus (vigorous, vivid).
Vegetarians do not eat meat, poultry, and fish. Eggs and dairy products are only ignored by a part of vegetarians. Vegetarian’s attitude to honey is ambiguous. Mushrooms are traditionally referred to plant food, although modern science sets them in a separate kingdom. Some vegetarians, in addition to certain type of foods, also exclude clothing and other various products, which are made of fur, leather, etc. as well as products, which comprise components of an animal origin, such as gelatin or glycerin, and the products which have been tested on animals. Read the rest of this entry »
Ralph Waldo Emerson (25 May1803 – 27 April 1882) was an American poet and essayist famous for his talent for oratory. He was one of the most influential thinkers and writers of the nineteenth century and a supporter of democratic egalitarianism. His contemporaries considered him to be a philosopher of idealism, which creatively continued idealistic vision of the relationship between man and the Absolute of Plato, St. Augustine and George Berkeley. He is also known as the author of the speech the American scholar called Intellectual Declaration of Independence. Since 1836, associated with the Boston Transcendental Club, Ralph Waldo Emerson was the representative of Romanticism in American poetry.
Traditionally called the wise man from Concord, he was baptized American Socrates by polish national poet Adam Mickiewicz. Read the rest of this entry »
Job satisfaction is an indicator of how much a person satisfied with his work. Other definitions describe job satisfaction as an attitude or set of beliefs and opinions about work, also taking into account the emotional component of this work and an employee behavior caused by the circumstances connected with this work.
According to Locke’s theory, the most important index of the satisfaction is the gap between individual expectations and to what extent job can meet those expectations. The level of satisfaction depends on the nature of the discrepancy. It can affect one or several of expectations, which can be evaluated according to various criteria. Read the rest of this entry »
American dream is the image of the ideal life which reigned in the US society at the beginning of the XXth century. The USA of that time was developing extremely fast and became one of the most prosperous and influential countries of the world. It was known that the USA was the country of possibilities and one could earn enough money to provide himself with everything essential for good life. Americans started to earn much and started to create their own visions of the ideal life. The novel Great Gatsby by Scott Fitzgerald has made a considerable contribution into the creation of the national vision of the American dream, because in his novel the author presented the life of a rich man who could afford everything but remained an honest man and required for the whole happiness only love. Read the rest of this entry »
Time is one of the fundamental concepts of philosophy and physics, a conventional measure of the relative motion, as well as one of the coordinates of space-time, along which are stretched the world lines of physical bodies.
In philosophy, time is an irreversible course (moving in only one direction – from the past through the present to the future), where happening all existing processes. However, there are theories of symmetric time, for example, the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory.
Most modern scholars consider crucial the distinction between the past and the future. Modern science believes the information is transferred from the past to the future and not in reverse. Second law of thermodynamics also corroborates the accumulation of entropy in the future. Read the rest of this entry »
Environmental economics is a branch of economics, which deals with the question of the causes and solutions of environmental problems. Ecological economics considers the economy to be a part of the ecosystem, which focuses on preserving natural capital.
Until the mid-1980s, environmental economics and natural resource economics were two independently evolving disciplines. The environmental economics focuses on finding solutions to environmental damage problems caused by economic activities. The economics of natural resources, in turn, focuses on the extraction of natural resources (all goods not reproducible by man) and the impact of socioeconomic reproduction of natural resources. Read the rest of this entry »
Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, which studies such disciplines as fuzzy logic, evolutionary computation, neural networks, artificial life, and robotics. The main object of its study is the rules of the intelligent human behavior, the creation of formal models of these behaviors, and – as a result – computer programs that simulate the behavior.
Alan Turing may be considered as creator of the term, which he first mentioned in his article “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” (Mind, October 1950 ). In the article, Turing explored the problem and proposed an experiment now known as the Turing test in an attempt to define a standard, which would test machines ability to exhibit human-like behavior. Read the rest of this entry »
Yoga is an Indian philosophical and religious doctrine that includes a series of mental and physical exercises such as Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Kriyas, meditation, and asceticism. The term yoga means both control and integration in the sense of guiding the body to understand the soul for their unification in God.
In a narrow sense, yoga is one of the six classical schools (Darshanas) of Indian philosophy, which teaches that human soul can become one with God and attain the highest good through self-awareness, self-discovery, completely freeing your mind from the influences of the outside world. The ultimate goal of yoga is moksha, liberation from the cycle of birth and death (samsara) and all the suffering and limitations of material existence. Read the rest of this entry »